African ancestry in the Gullah-inhabited region of South Carolina can be traced back to West African rice-growing regions of Senegal, Gambia, and Guinea-Bissau in the north to Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Isolation and other factors made it possible for slaves to preserve more of their African linguistic and cultural heritage than any other African-American community in the United States. The result is known as Gullah, a blend of British, American and West African culture, food, religion, and traditions.

In 2005, the Gullah community unveiled a translation of the New Testament in the Gullah language. Famous African Americans with Gullah roots include Jim Brown, Joe Frazier, Candice Glover, Jazzy Jay, and Clarence Thomas.